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Development of High Fatigue Strength Ultra-Fine Grained Stainless Steel for Cylinder Head Gasket

Article of Honda R&D Technical Review Vol.12 No.1

Summary

Fatigue testing of metallic cylinder head gaskets has shown that there is a performance discrepancy between the original sheet material and the manufactured gasket. It was determined that this discrepancy was caused by the grain boundary cracking that occurs during head forming. Therefore, an improved austenitic stainless spring steel possessing high fatigue strength was developed to improve gasket performance. This new steel features a grain-refined structure achieved by controlling recrystallization with reverse transformation.
The developed steel has a composite structure consisting of a rolling induced martensite structure and a recrystallized austenitic structure by reverse transformation having an average grain size kept to within 1 ~ 2 μm. When this material is applied to a cylinder head gasket, fatigue strength is increased 30% and there is no loss of combustion gas sealing performance.

Reference

(1) Yukitaka Murakami, Shotaro Kodama, and Shizuyo Konuma: Quantitative Evaluation of Effects of Nonmetallic Inclusions on Fatigue Strength of High Strength Steel, Transactions of JSME Vol.A-54, No.500, p.688-p.693(1988) (Written in Japanese)
(2) Yoshihiro Ohkomori, Ikujiro Kitagawa, Keigo Shinozuka, Toshiyuki Toriyama, Kenji Matsuda, Yukitaka Murakami: Effects of Nonmetallic Inclusions and Small Surface Pits on the Fatigue Strength of a High Strength Steel at Two Hardness Levels, Tetsu-to-Hagane, No.77, p.438-445(1991) (Written in Japanese)
(3) Yukitaka Murakami, Motokazu Kobayashi, Taizo Makino, Toshiyuki Toriyama, Yoshiaki Kurihara, Souichi Takasaki, Ryuichiro Ebara: Quantitative Evaluation of the Factors Influencing Fatigue Strength of Spring Steels (Effects of Nonmetallic Inclusions, Shot Peening, Decarburized Layer and Small Surface Pits), Transactions of JSME Vol.A-57-542, p.2305-p.2313(1991)(Written in Japanese)
(4) Takashi Katsurai, Tatsumi Tozawa, Hajime Kato, Yoshimasa Takayama: Fatigue Fracture for Beadformed Sheet of Austenitic Stainless Steel, CAMP-ISIJ, Vol.6, p.1763-1753(1993) (Written in Japanese)
(5) Takashi Katsurai, Tatsumi Tozawa, Hajime Kato, Yoshimasa Takayama: Fatigue Fracture for Beadformed Sheet of Austenitic Stainless Steel, Tetsu-to-Hagane, No.80, p.54-59(1994)
(6) Keisuke Tanaka, Yoshikazu Nakai, Yoshiaki Akiniwa: Mechanisms and Mechanics of Fatigue Fracture of Steels, Tetsu-to-Hagane, No.79, p.12-23(1993) (Written in Japanese)
(7) Takashi Katsurai, Tatsumi Tozawa, Hajime Kato, Yoshimasa Takayama: Effect of Surface Feature on Fatigue Fracture for Bead-formed Sheet of SUS301 Steel, CAMP-ISIJ, Vol.8, p.1682-1682(1994) (Written in Japanese)
(8) Kouki Tomimura, Yuuji Kawauchi, Setsuo Takaki, Youichi Tokunaga: Effect of Prior Deformation on Grain Refining Process of Martensitic Shear Reversion in Metastable Austenitic Stainless Steel, Tetsu-to-Hagane, No.77, p.139-146(1991) (Written in Japanese)
(9) Ken Moriya, Ryo Matsuki, Haruo Aoyama: Development of High Strength SUS304 Stainless Steel by Grain Refining, CAMP-ISIJ, Vol.12, p.514-514(1999) (Written in Japanese)
(10) Setsuo Takaki: Reversion of Deformation Induced Martensite to Austenite and Mechanism of Ultra Grain Refining, Tetsu-to-Hagane, No.80, p.529-535(1994) (Written in Japanese)
(11)Setsuo Takaki: Ultra Grain Refining of Steels–Driving Force for Grain Refining and Limitation of Refinement–, Netsushori, No.34-5, p.260-264(1994) (Written in Japanese)
(12) Kurzydlowski K. J., Bucki J. J.: “Flow Stress Dependence on the Distribution of Grain Size in Polycrystals”, Acta Metall. Mater., Vol.41, p.3141-3146 (1993)
(13) Setsuo Takaki: Suggestion for the Evaluation of Grain Size in Ultra Fine Grained Steels, CAMP-ISIJ, Vol.12, p.1150-1152(1999) (Written in Japanese)

Author (organization or company)

Takashi KATSURAI(Tochigi R&D Center)

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